Botox Mechanism :
Botox is a polypeptide produced by the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Botulinum toxin is used medically to treat certain muscular conditions, and cosmetically to remove wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing muscles. It is made from a neurotoxin called botulinum toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Several different proteins mediate this process. N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein is a cytoplasmic protein that is part of the fusion complex. vesicle and plasma membranes contain SNAP receptors. It also includes vesicle-associated membrane protein and the plasma proteins.
Besides, Botox is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase made up of a light and a heavy chain linked by disulfide bonds.
Eight serologically distinct botulinum neurotoxins exist, designated as A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G. Besides , Seven are associated with paralysis. Furthermore, Types A, B, E and, rarely, F and G are associated with human botulism.
Botulism is a bilaterally symmetric descending neuroparalytic illness caused by botulinum neurotoxin. In fact the German physician and poet Justinus Kerner published the first full description of clinical symptoms of food-borne botulism from 1817-1822.
In addition, His observations followed an increase in food poisoning in Stuttgart from 1795-1813 caused by general economic hardship related to the Napoleonic wars and a decline in hygienic measures of food production and handling. Consequently the illness became known as “sausage poisoning” because it was observed to follow ingestion of spoiled sausage. The word botulism comes from the Latin botulus, meaning sausage.
Furthermore, With ingestion of foods with neurotoxin, the neurotoxin is absorbed and spread hematogenously to peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, where it blocks the release of acetylcholine.
Risks and side effects:
In fact, Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and there are few side effects. Moreover, In rare cases, an individual may have a genetic predisposition that results in a mild, transient unusual response to the drug.
- Mild nausea.
- Temporary unwanted weakness/paralysis of nearby muscles.
- Temporary upper lid or brow ptosis (drooping).
- Weakness of the lower eyelid or lateral rectus (a muscle controlling eye movement).
- Dysphagia – trouble swallowing.
- Neck weakness.
- Flu-like illness.
- Brachial plexopathy – a condition affecting the nerves either side of the neck and chest.
- Gallbladder dysfunction.
- Diplopia (double vision).
- Blurred vision.
- Decreased eyesight.
- Dry mouth.
Finally, not only Botox’s popularity continues to increase, But also with cosmetic minimally-invasive botulinum toxin type A procedures up 700 percent since 2000, to 6.3 million in 2013.